BS English

Study Skills

Course Description

The main purpose of this course is to guide students in their first year of learning and impart basic study skills. It is designed with the view to enable them to take immediate control of their learning. The course will enable students to devise and follow “study systems” and equip them with the ability to think critically and adopt effective learning strategies. With the help of various study techniques and styles and other available resources, the students will be able to improve their academic performance.

Course Objectives

  • To help students learn basic self-management and study skills
  • To enable them to use combination of skills to minimize risks of failure
  • To make them become confident and successful in the new learning environment

Course Contents

  1. Seeking Success in University
  2. Knowing your campus and its resources
  3. Form An Academic Support Group
  4. Know Where to Find  Help
  5. Stay Informed
  6. Get Involved
  7. Motivating Yourself to Learn
  8. Assess Academic Strengths and Weaknesses
  9. Discover and use your learning style
  10. Develop Critical Thinking & Study Skills
  11. Adapt learning style to teaching method
  12. Using Critical Thinking Strategies
  13. Examine Your Assumption
  14. Make Predictions
  15. Read With A Purpose
  16. Sharpen Your Interpretations
  17. Find Implications in What You Learn
  18. Read and Understand Graphics
  19. Evaluate what you learn
  20. Setting Goals and Solving Problems
  21. Set goals for success in college
  22. How to develop a positive attitude
  23. Sharpening Your Classroom Skills
  24. Prepare for Class
  25. Become an Active Listener
  26. Develop A Personal Note-Taking System
  27. Guidelines for Note Taking
  28. The Informal Outline/Key Words System
  29. The Cornell Method
  30. Matching Note-Taking Style and Learning Style
  31. Learn To Make Effective Presentations
  32. Making the Most of Your Time
  33. How to GRAB Some Time
  34. Scheduling Your Time
  35. Time Management and Learning Style
  36. Procrastination
  37. Creating Your Study System
  38. SQ3R:  The Basic System
  39. Devising Your Study System
  40. Organizing Information for Study
  41. Memorization
  42. Concept or Information Maps
  43. Comparison Charts
  44. Time Lines
  45. Process Diagrams
  46. Informal Outlines
  47. Branching Diagrams
  48. Controlling Your Concentration
  49. Concentrations
  50. Eliminate Distractions
  51. Use A Study System
  52. Strategies to Improve Concentration
  53. Preparing for Tests
  54. How To Prepare for Tests: Three Steps
  55. Develop a Test-taking Routine
  56. Master Objective Tests
  57. Know How  to Answer Essay Questions
  58. Becoming an Active Reader
  59. Reading Actively
  60. Find the Main Idea, Details, and Implications
  61. Using a Textbook Marking System
  62. How to use a dictionary
  63. Building Career Skills
  64. Working in the New Economy  
  65. Where the Jobs will be
  66. Choosing Your Future
  67. Your course of Study
  68. Your Plan
  69. What Employers Want
  70. Career Skills to Develop
  71. Workplace Ethics
  72. From University to Work
  73. Your Resume and Cover Letter
  74. The Interview

Recommended Readings

  • Bain, Ken. (2012). What the best college students do.
  • Kanar, Carol C. (2001). The Confident Student. Houghton Mifflin Co.
  • Mcmillan, Kathleen. (2011). The Study skills book. Pearson.
  • Pauk, Walter. How to Study in College.
  • Wallace, M.J. (1980). Study Skills in English.

Introduction to Geography

Course Description

Analyses the physical structure of the earth’s surface, including landforms, weather, climate, and biogeography. Emphasizes understanding of what makes each point on Earth unique and how humans interact with physical systems in multiple ways.

Course Objectives

Students should be able to:

  • Explain the causes of seasons
  • Discuss the formation of major landforms.
  • Discuss the function, temperature profile and composition of the atmosphere.
  • Discuss the hydrologic cycle, and the distribution and allocation of water resources for humans.
  • Analyze patterns and consequences of human environment interaction.

Course Outline


  1. Definition of Geography
    1. Scope of Geography
    1. Trends in evolution of Geography as a science
    1. Geography and its relationships with other sciences


2.1 Physical Geography

2.2 Human Geography

2.2.1 Economic Geography

2.2.2 Urban Geography

2.2.3 Population Geography


3.1 Earth within the solar system

3.2 Shape, size and movements of the earth

3.3 Location and time on earth

         3.3.1 Latitude, longitude network

         3.3.2 Local Time, Standard time

         3.3.3 Time zones and International Date Line


4.1 Lithosphere and its main characteristics

4.2 Hydrosphere and its main characteristics

4.3 Atmosphere and its main characteristics

4.4 Biosphere and its main characteristics


5.1 Man-environment interaction

5.2 Introduction to theories of Environmental Determinism/Possibilism

5.3 Human activities in relationship with environment

5.4 Human activities and their impact on environment

5.5 Human activities, utilization of environmental resources and concept of Sustainability

Suggested Readings

  1. Modern Physical Geography By A.N. Strahler 2004
  2. Human Geography: Culture, Society And space By H.J.D. Bliji 2002
  3. Environment, Resources and Conservationby S. Owen and P. Owen 1990

Pakistan Studies


This Course covers the brief history of the territories which now constitute Pakistan from ancient times to the present. The course is divided in three major sections. In first section, the historical roots of Pakistan are traced in Indus civilization and it is studied how Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Islam was spread in this region in different phases, and what kind of ruling dynasties had ruled the region in ancient and medieval times. The political and constitutional developments in British colonial phase are discussed with a special focus on how it caused the rise of Muslim separatism and ultimately led to the division of the sub-continent in 1947.

In second section, the political and constitutional developments in independent Pakistan are traced from 1947 to the contemporary times to study how Pakistan has oscillated between democratic and military rules.

Finally, in the third section society, culture, ethnic composition, economy, foreign policy and some current developments are covered.

•Make students aware about the rich past of the region which now constitutes Pakistan.
• Develop better understanding of the complex history, the governmental structures and the political and constitutional developments.
• Develop awareness about the ethnic composition, territorial units, cultural heritage, economic problems, and current challenges in the foreign policy of Pakistan.

After completing this course, the students will be able to:
• Students have learned how Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Islam have been practiced by the people in the land of Pakistan in different periods.
• Students have been sensitized about the religious, cultural and ethnic diversity of Pakistan.
• Students have become aware of the history, the nation-state building and the political system of Pakistan.


i. The rise of Muslim Separatism, Two Nation Theory and Ideology of Pakistan with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (Aligarh Movement), Allama Muhammad Iqbal (Allahabad Address 1930), Quaid-iAzam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and his Fourteen Points to Lahore Resolution 1940.

i. Political and Constitutional Developments in Pakistan 1947-58. Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah as a first Governor General, Objectives Resolution 1949, Causes of delay in constitution making, salient features of 1956 Constitution Common Compulsory and General Courses for all BS Programs of Social Sciences
ii. First two Martial Laws Dismemberment of Pakistan 1958-71 (Ayub Era- BD System, features of 1962 Constitution, Indo-Pak war of 1965, Taskhent Agreement, Industrial and agricultural policy, end of Ayub government. Martial Law of General Yahya Khan- LFO, Election 1970, Indo –Pak war of 1971 and Separation of East Pakistan.
iii. Democratic government of Zulifiqar Ali Bhutto-1972-77, Simla agreement 1972, constitution of 1973 (1st amendment to 7th mendment),policy of Nationalization, establishment and promotion of heavy industry, Nuclear program etc.
iv. Third Martial Law: Zia-ul-Haq’s Military Rule 1977-1988- Islamization, Assassination of Bhutto, Afghanistan issue,Transition towards Democracy, 8th Amendment in the constitution of 1973 etc.
v. Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif’s Democratic interlude 1988-1999,emergence of Taliban, Shariat Bill, Nuclear explosions, 14th and 15th Amendments, Kargil War.
vi. Fourth martial law: Parvez Musharraf’s Military Rule- 1999-2008, War on Terror, 17th Amendment, PCO, Brief introduction of NRO, NAB, NADRA, PEMRA, Assassination of Benazir Bhutto.
vii.The Revival of Democracy- 2008-2019: PPP government-2008-2013, 3 rd term of Nawaz Sharif -2013-2018, Resignation of Parvez Musharaf, Energy crises and Rental power plants, War on terror, Restoration of judiciary, Madrasah Reforms, 18 th Amendment, 7 th NFC Award, Drone attacks, Abbottabad Operation, CEPC, Infrastructure, National security and defense policy, Karachi Operation ,Operation Zarb-e-Azb.

i. Pakistani Society and Culture: Characteristics of Pakistani Culture, Ethnic groups and Ethnicity.
ii. Human Rights and Minorities in Pakistan
iii. The merger of FATA in Khyber Pukhtunkhawa.
iv. The Status of AJK and Gilgit Baltistan.
v. Foreign Policy of Pakistan (Definition, Principles, Determinants, Challenges). Relations with India, Afghanistan, Iran, China (CEPC), USA, USSR(Russia), Saudi Arabia.) Strategic Problems and Defense Policy of Pakistan.
vi. The Economy of Pakistan: Issues of Pakistan’s Economy, Agriculture, Industry, Tax Revenue.

• Ahmed, Ishtiaq (2013) Pakistan the Garrison State: Origins, Evolution, Consequences 19472011. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
•Ikram, S.M. (2000) History of Muslim Civilization in India & Pakistan. Lahore: Institute of Islamic Culture.
• Jalal, Aysha(1994) The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Common Compulsory and General Courses for all BS Programs of Social Sciences
• Jaffrelot, Christophe (2015) The Pakistan Paradox: Instability and Resilience. Translated by Cynthia Schoch, (New Delhi: Random House).
• Kazimi, M.R. (2006) Pakistan Studies. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
• Kazimi, M.R. (2008) A Concise History of Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
• Khan, Hamid (2018) Constitutional and Political History of Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
• Sattar, Abdul (2017) Pakistan’s Foreign Policy (1947-2016): A Concise History (Fourth Edition). Karachi: Oxford University Press.

English-I: Reading and Writing Skills

Course Description

The course is designed to help students take a deep approach in reading and writing academic texts which involve effective learning strategies and techniques aimed at improving the desired skills. The course consists of two major parts: the ‘reading section’ focusses on recognizing a topic sentence, skimming, scanning, use of cohesive devices, identifying facts and opinions, guess meanings of unfamiliar words. The ‘writing section’ deals with the knowledge and use of various grammatical components such as, parts of speech, tenses, voice, narration, modals etc. in practical contexts.    

Course Objectives

  • To enable students to identify main/topic sentences.
  • To teach them to use effective strategies while reading texts.
  • To acquaint them with cohesive devices and their function in the text.

Course Contents

1.      Reading Skills

   •        Identify Main Idea / Topic sentences

   •        Skimming, Scanning, and Inference / Find Specific and General Information Quickly

   •        Distinguish Between Relevant and Irrelevant Information According to Purpose for Reading

   •        Recognise and Interpret Cohesive Devices

   •        Distinguish Between Fact and Opinion

   •        Guess the Meanings of Unfamiliar Words Using Context Clues

   •        Use the Dictionary for Finding out Meanings and Use of Unfamiliar Words

   •        Practice Exercises with Every Above Mentioned Aspect of Reading

2.      Writing Skills

   •        Parts of Speech

   •        Phrase, clause and sentence structure

   •        Combining sentences

   •        Tenses: meaning and use

   •        Modals

   •        Use of active and passive voice

   •        Reported Speech

   •        Writing good sentences

   •        Error Free writing

   •        Paragraph writing with topic sentence

   •        Summary writing

Note: Teachers need to include practice activities, exercises and worksheets on the provided topics.

Recommended Readings

   •        Howe, D. H, Kirkpatrick, T. A., & Kirkpatrick, D. L. (2004). Oxford English for undergraduates.  Karachi: Oxford University Press.

   •        Eastwood, J. (2004).  English Practice Grammar (New edition with tests and answers). Karachi: Oxford University Press.

   •        Murphy, R. (2003).  Grammar in use.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Introduction to Literary Studies

Course Description

This course introduces literature as cultural and historical phenomena. This entails a study of history of various periods of English Literature from Renaissance to the present. The course also, very briefly, touches upon different theoretical approaches to literature to introduce the student to literary critique and evaluation. A general understanding of literary theory as a broad field of philosophical concepts and principles is also crucial to the understanding of literary piece.           

Course Objectives

   1.      To study the history and practice of English as a scholarly discipline.

   2.      To study the history and development of each genre through excerpts of literary texts.

   3.      To do close reading of texts and analyze them with different critical frameworks.

   4.      To analyze and criticize the works of literature in their cultural and historical contexts.

   5.      To assess the influence of literary movements in Britain on English literature from all parts of the world.

Course Contents

      1.  William Henry Hudson. Introduction to the Study of Literature (1913)

      2.   Andrew Sanders. The Short Oxford History of English Literature(1994)

      3.   Mario Klarer. Introduction to Literary Studies (1999)

      4    J. H. Miller. On Literature (2002)

Note: The teacher will use Sander’s history with any one of the three books on literature as core texts.

Suggested Readings

  • Albert, E. (1979). History of English Literature (5th ed.). Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Alexander, M. (2000). A History of English Literature. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Blamires, H. (1984). A Short History of English Literature. London: Routledge.
  • Carter, R., & McRae, J. (1997). The Routledge History of Literature in English, Britain and Ireland.London: Routledge.
  • Chin, B. A., Wolfe, D., Copeland, J., & Dudzinski, M. A. (2001). Glencoe Literature: British Literature. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
  • Compton-Rickett, A. (1912). A History of English Literature. London: T. C. and E. C. Jack.
  • Daiches, D. (1968). A Critical History of English Literature. London: Martin Secker and Warburg Ltd.
  • Fletcher, R. H. (1919). A History of English Literature. Boston: R. G. Badger.
  • Legouis, E., & Cazamian, L. (1960). A History of English Literature. London: J. M. Dent and Sons.

Introduction to Language Studies

Course Description

Language is central to human experience. This course provides a comprehensive overview of language origin, evolution of language as human faculty, and traces the history of English language in order to provide an idea how languages developed. The part on the history of the English language covers story of English language from beginning to the present. The course also includes a brief introduction of the history of linguistics with special reference to various schools of thought that have contributed significantly to the development of Linguistics.

Course Objectives

This course aims to:

  • Give students a comprehensive overview of language as human faculty.
  • Familiarize students with different stories about the origin of language.
  • Provide students an overview of how a language develops through a comprehensive exposure to English language development.
  • Enable students to identify major theoretical formulations in the development of linguistics.

Course Contents

  1. Language Origin
  2. Language as a divine gift
  3. Natural sound source theories
  4. Social interaction source theories
  5. The Physical adaptation sources
  6. The genetic source
  7. Speech vs Writing
  8. Primacy of speech
  9. Speech vs. Writing
  10. Origin of writing
  11. Types of writing systems
  12. Language as Human Faculty
  13. Human Language vs animal communication
  14. Characteristics of Language: Design features
  15. Animals lack language: A controversy
  16. Language Families
  17. What is a language family?
  18. Language Families in the World: A Brief Overview
  19. Historical Linguistics
  20. What is linguistics?
  21. What is historical linguistics?
  22. What does historical linguistics study? (phonological, morphological, syntactic, and semantic changes)
  23. Methods of Language reconstruction

Evolution of English Language

  • Old & Middle English Periods
  • Grammatical categories
  • Inflections
  • Grammatical gender
  • Renaissance
  • Old, Middle, and Modern English (grammatical categories)
  • Shakespeare
  • 18th Century
  • Major characteristics of the age
  • Problem of refining and fixing the language
  • Swift’s proposal
  • Johnson’s Dictionary
  • Grammarians
  • Vocabulary formation
  • Introduction of passives
  • 19th Century
  • Important events and influences
  • Sources of new words
  • Pidgins   and Creoles
  • Spelling reforms
  • Development of Dictionary
  • Verb-adverb combination
  • English Language in America
  • Americanism
  • Archive Features
  • Difference between the British and American English

Development of Modern Linguistics

  1. Modern Linguistics
    1. Emergence of Modern Linguistics: Saussure
    1. Structuralism
    1. American Structuralism
  2. The Prague School
  3. Contemporary Approaches to Linguistics
  4. Functional Linguistics

Recommended Readings

  • Bough, A.C. & Cable, T. (2002). A History of English Language. London: Prentice Hall, Inc.
  • Campbell, L. (2001), ‘The history of linguistics’, in M. Aronoff and J. Rees-Miller (eds),The  Handbook of Linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, pp. 81-104. 
  • Joseph, J.E. (2002), From Whitney to Chomsky: essays in the history of American linguistics
    Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Yule, George. (2006). The Study of Language: 4th/ 5th Edition, Cambridge University Press.

Islamic Studies

Course Description

Islamic studies provides an introduction to Islamic teachings, history in classical and modern periods, and contemporary thought.

Course Objective

  • To enhance understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.

Course Contents

1. Introduction to Quranic Studies

  • Basic Concepts of Quran
  • History of Quran
  • Uloom-ul -Quran

2. Study of Selected Text of Holy Quran

  • Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286)
  • Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi

3. Verse No-1-18

Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful

4. Verse No-1-11

  • Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.63-77)
  • Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154)

5. Study of Selected Text of Holy Quran

  • Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.6, 21, 40, 56, 57, 58.)
  • Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18,19, 20) Related to thinking, Day of Judgment
  • Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar, Tadabar (Verse No-1,14)

6. Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) I

  • Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood)
  • Life of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) in Makkah
  • Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah

7. Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) II

  • Life of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) in Madina
  • Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina
  • Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina

8. Introduction to Sunnah

  • Basic Concepts of Hadith
  • History of Hadith
  • Kinds of Hadith
  • Uloom-ul-Hadith
  • Sunnah & Hadith
  • Legal Position of Sunnah

9. Introduction to Islamic Law & Jurisprudence

  • Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence
  • History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence
  • Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence
  • Nature of Differences in Islamic Law

10. Islam and Sectarianism

11. Islamic Culture & Civilization

  • Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization
  • Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization
  • Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization
  • Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues

12. Islam & Science

  • Basic Concepts of Islam & Science
  • Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science
  • Quranic & Science

13. Islamic Economic System

  • Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System
  • Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics
  • Islamic Concept of Riba
  • Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce

14. Political System of Islam

  • Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System
  • Islamic Concept of Sovereignty
  • Basic Institutions of Govt. in Islam

15. Islamic History

  • Period of khilafat-e-rashida
  • Period of Umayyads
  • Period of Abbasids

16. Social System of Islam

  • Basic concepts of social system of Islam
  • Elements of family
  • Ethical values of Islam

Recommended Readings

  • Ahmad Hasan, “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute, International Islamic University, Islamabad (1993)
  • Dr. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad (2001)
  • H.S. Bhatia, “Studies in Islamic Law, Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989)
  • Hameed ullah Muhammad, ‘Introduction to Islam Maulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi,”
  • Hameed ullah Muhammad, “Emergence of Islam” , IRI, Islamabad
  • Hameed ullah Muhammad, “Muslim Conduct of State”
  • Hussain Hamid Hassan, “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” Leaf Publication Islamabad, Pakistan.

Mir Waliullah, “Muslim Jurisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982)

Elementary Mathematics & Statistics

Course Contents

  1. a.   Introduction to Set Theory

b.  Types of Set

c.   Builder Notation Form/Roaster Form

d.   Basic Operations on Set (Union, Intersection)

  • Functions
  • Types of Function
  • a.   De Morgan’s Law
  • Distributive Law
  • Commutative Law
  • Associative Law
  • a.   Introduction to Number Theory
  • Real Number System
  • Complex Number System
  • a.   Linear Equations

b.   Single Variable Equations

c.    Multi Variable Equations

  • a.   Matrices

b.   Introduction to Matrices

c.   Types of Matrices

7.    a.  Matrix inverse

          b.  Determinant

  • a.   Quadratic Equations

b.   Solution of a Quadratic Equation

c.   Qualitative Analysis of Roots of a Quadratic Equation

  • a.   Equation Reducible to Quadratic Equation

b.   Cube Roots of Unity

c.   Relation between Roots & Coefficient of Quadratic Equations

  1. a    Sequence & Series
  2. Arithmetic Progression
  3. Geometric Progression
  4. Harmonic Progression
  5. a.  Trigonometry
  6. Fundamentals of Trigonometry
  7. Trigonometric Identities
  8. a.    Binomial Theorem
  9. Introduction to Mathematical Induction
  10. Binomial Theorem with Rational & Irrational Indices

13.   a.   Mean

          b.   Mode

          c.   Medium

Introduction to Political Science

Course Objectives

The objective of this course is to introduce the students with the fundamentals of the subject of Political Science and prepare them for advanced studies in the forth coming semesters. The very concepts and terminology commonly used in the further courses of studies are taught to make the students friendly with the subject.

Course Contents

  1. Definition, Nature, Scope and Sub-fields of Political Science.
  2. Relationship of Political Science with other social sciences.
  3. Approaches to the study of Political Science: Traditional and behavioural approach.
  4. State: its origin and evolution; Western and Islamic concepts of state.
  5. Nation and Sovereignty.
  6. Basic concepts of Political Science: Power, Authority, Legitimacy.
  7. Organs of Government: Legislature, Executive, Judiciary.

Note: Sub-fields of Political Science include: Political Philosophy/Theory; Comparative Politics; IntenationalRelations; Public Administration/Public Policy; Local Government, etc.

Suggested Readings

  1. Haq, Mazhar ul. Theory and Practice in Political Science, Lahore Bookland , 1996.
  2. Mackenzi, Ian (Ed.). Political Concepts: A Reader and Guide. Edinburgh, University Press, 2005.
  3.  Sarwar, Muhammad. Introduction to Political Science. Lahore Ilmi Kutub Khana, 1996.

English-II: Composition Writing

Course Description

This course aims at inculcating proficiency in academic writing through research. It guides students to develop a well-argued and well-documented academic paper with a clear thesis statement, critical thinking, argumentation and synthesis of information. This course also teaches students how to use different systems of citations and bibliography. It allows students to become independent and efficient readers armed with appropriate skills and strategies for reading and comprehending texts at undergraduate level.

Course Objectives

To enable the students to:

  • Improve literal understanding, interpretation & general assimilation, and integration of knowledge
  • Write well organized academic texts including examination answers with topic/thesis statement and supporting details.
  • Write argumentative essays and course assignments

Course Contents

Reading and Critical Thinking

1. Read academic texts effectively by:

  • Using appropriate strategies for extracting information and salient
  • points according to a given purpose
  • Identifying the main points supporting details, conclusions in a text of intermediate level
  • Identifying the writer’s intent such as cause and effect, reasons, comparison and contrast, and exemplification.
  • Interpreting charts and diagrams
  • Making appropriate notes using strategies such as mind maps, tables, lists, graphs.
  • Reading and carrying out instructions for tasks, assignments and examination questions

2.      Enhance academic vocabulary using skills learnt in Compulsory English I course

3.      Acquire efficient dictionary skills such as locating guide words, entry words, choosing appropriate definition, and identifying pronunciation through pronunciation key, identifying part of speech, identifying syllable division and stress patterns

4. Writing Academic Texts:

1.      Plan their writing: identify audience, purpose and message (content)

2.      Collect information in various forms such as mind maps, tables, charts, lists

3.               Order information such as:

  • Chronology for a narrative
    • Stages of a process
    • From general to specific and vice versa
    • From most important to least important
    • Advantages and disadvantages
    • Comparison and contrast
    • Problem solution pattern

5. Write argumentative and descriptive forms of writing using different methods of developing ideas like listing, comparison, and contrast, cause and effect, for and against

  • Write good topic and supporting sentences and effective conclusions
    • Use appropriate cohesive devices such as reference words and signal markers

6.      Redraft checking content, structure and language.

7.      Edit and proof read

8.      Grammar in Context

  • Phrase, clause and sentence structure
    • Combining sentences
    • Reported Speech

Recommended Readings

  • Eastwood, J. (2004). English Practice Grammar (New edition with tests and answers). Karachi: Oxford University Press.
  • Fisher, A. (2001). Critical Thinking. C UP
  • Goatly, A. (2000). Critical Reading and Writing: An Introductory Course. London: Taylor & Francis
  • Hacker, D. (1992). A Writer’s Reference. 2nd Ed. Boston: St. Martin’s
  • Hamp-Lyons, L. & Heasley, B. (1987). Study writing: A course in written English for academic and professional purposes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Howe, D. H, Kirkpatrick, T. A., & Kirkpatrick, D. L. (2004). Oxford English for Undergraduates. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
  • Murphy, R. (2003?). Grammar in Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Smazler, W. R. (1996). Write to be Read: Reading, Reflection and Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Wallace, M. (1992). Study Skills. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Yorky, R. Study Skills.

Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology

Course Description

This course explores speech sounds as physical entities (phonetics) and linguistic units (phonology). In viewing sounds as physical elements, the focus is on articulatory description. In this part of the course, the goal is to learn to produce, transcribe, and describe in articulatory terms many of the sounds known to occur in human languages. In the next part of the course, the focus is on sounds as members of a particular linguistic system.

Course Objectives

This course aims to:

  • assist students learn a number of technical terms related to the course
  • familiarize students with sounds and sound patterning, particularly in English Language
  • develop knowledge of segmental and supra-segmental speech
  • help students understand the features of connected speech

Course Contents

  1. Basic definitions
  2. Phonetics
  3. Articulatory, Auditory & Acoustic Phonetics
  4. Phonology
  5. Phoneme
  6. Vowels
  7. Consonants
  8. Diphthongs
  9. Triphthongs
  10. Voicing
  11. Aspiration
  12. Minimal pairs
  13. Organs of Speech
  14. Phonemes
  15. Consonants(place and manner of articulation)
  16. Vowels (vowel trapezium/quadrilateral)
  17. Monophthongs
  18. Diphthongs
  19. Triphthongs
  20. Rules
  21. Rules of Voicing
  22. Rules of /r/
  23. Rules of /ŋ/
  24. Practice of phonemic transcription
  25. Definitions
  26. Homophones
  27. Homographs
  28. Homonyms
  29. Homophenes
  30. Fluency Devices
  31. Assimilation
  32. Elision
  33. Weak forms/Strong forms
  34. linking

8.       Sound Values

9.  Stress and Intonation

10. Practice of phonemic transcription

Recommended Readings

  • Collins, B. and Mees, I. (2003) Practical Phonetics and Phonology: A Resource Book for Students. London & NY: Routledge (Taylor & Francis)
  • Clark, J and Yallop, C. (1995). An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology. 2nd edition. Cambridge, Mass: Blackwell.
  • Davenport, Mike & S. J. Hannahs. (2010). Introducing Phonetics & Phonology, 3rd edition. Hodder Education

Roach, Peter. (2009). English Phonetics and Phonology: A Practical Course. 4th Edition. Cambridge.

Literary Forms and Movements

Course Description

This course covers two foundational schemes regarding the study of literature: 1) Forms, and 2) Movements. The term “forms” refer to the study of literary genres and their subtypes in such a way as to introduce the students to their structures and styles with its focus on the following:

1) Poetry;   2) Fiction; 3) Drama; 4) Prose/Non-fiction; and 5) Short Story.  The term “movement” is rather loosely used to characterize literary texts produced in different cultures under the influence of or for the propagation of certain ideas as their hallmarks/signatures.  The course has been designed to intellectually groom the students  for a broad understanding  of the major literary movements in the history of world literature, especially British and American: Idealism (Greek), Renaissance/Early Modern,  Neoclassicism,  Enlightenment, Romanticism,  Victorianism, Raphaelitism,  Realism,  Transcendentalism,    Modernism, Colonialism, Symbolism, Imagist and post-Colonialism, Feminism and post-Feminism.  

Course Objectives 

  • Build students’ capacity for grasping the meaning of a literary text in terms of a given historical period/dominant idea. 
  • Develop their ability for understanding the major ideas that played a key role in shaping the works of different groups of writers.
  • Provide them with a workable tool for interpreting and analyzing a literary text.

Suggested Readings

Berman, Art. Preface to Modernism. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1994.
Dirks, B Nicholos.  Colonialism and Culture. Michigan:    Michigan Univ Press. 1992.
Fowler, Alastair. Kinds of Literature : An Introduction to the Theory of Genres and Modes.  Oxford: Clarenden, 2002.
Galea, Ileana. Victorianism and Literature. California. Dacia, 2008.
Gura, Philip. American Transcendentalism.  NP:  Farrar, 2008.
Hagger, Hagger.  A New Phlsophy of World Literature. The Universlaist Literary Tradtion. Ropley: John Hunt Publishing, 2004.
Hooks, Bell. Feminist Theory.  London: Pluto Press, 2000.
Hudson, William HenryAn Introduction to the Study of LiteratureNew Delhi : Rupa, 2015.
Marcuse, J Michael.  Arefence Guide for English Studies. Los Angeles: Univ of  California Press, 1990.   
Osborne, Susan. Feminism. NP: Product Essentials, 2001.
Philips, Jerry , Andrew Ladd, and K H Meyers. Romanticism and Transcendentalism.  New York:  DWJ Books: 2010.
Tandon, Neeru. Feminism: A Paradigm Shift. New Delhi: Atlantic, 2008.

Introduction to ICT Skills

Course Description

Information technology literacy has become a fundamental requirement for any major. An understanding of the principles underlying digital devices, computer hardware, software, telecommunications, networking and multimedia is an integral part of any IT curriculum. This course provides a sound foundation on the basic theoretical and practical principles behind these technologies and discusses up to date issues surrounding them including social aspects and how they impact everyday life.

Course Objectives

  • Understand the fundamentals of information technology
  • Learn core concepts of computing and modern systems
  • Understand modern software programs and packages
  • Learn about upcoming IT technologies

Course Contents

Basic Definitions & Concepts, Hardware: Computer Systems & Components. Storage Devices, Number Systems, Software: Operating Systems, Programming and Application Software, Introduction to Programming, Databases and Information Systems, Networks, Data Communication, The Internet, Browsers and Search Engines, The Internet: Email, Collaborative Computing and Social Networking, The Internet: E-Commerce, IT Security and other issues, IT Project.

Required Skills

These basic competencies are assumed on the first day of class. Students must assume responsibility for learning these skills if he/she does not already possess them. If an instructor finds that you do not have the required skills and knowledge, you may be asked to withdraw from the course.

1. Basic Knowledge of Computers

  • Understand basic computer hardware components and terminology
  • Understand the concepts and basic functions of a common computer operating system
  • Start up, log on, and shut down a computer system properly
  • Use a mouse pointing device and keyboard
  • Use Help and know how to troubleshoot routine problems
  • Identify and use icons (folders, files, applications, and shortcuts/aliases)
  • Minimize, maximize and move windows
  • Identify common types of file extensions (e.g. doc, docx, pdf, html, jpg, gif, xls,ppt, pptx, rtf, txt, exe)
  • Check how much space is left on a drive or other storage device
  • Back up files        
  • Download and install software on a hard disk
  • Understand and manage the file structure of a computer
  • Check for and install operating system updates

2. Proficiency in Using Productivity Software

  • Create documents of various types and save in a desired location
  • Retrieve an existing document from the saved location
  • Select, copy, and paste text in a document or desired location
  • Print a document
  • Name, rename, copy and delete files
  • Understand and know how to use the following types of software programs:
  • Word processing (example: MS Word, Google Doc, Writer)
  • Presentation (example: PowerPoint, Impress)
  • Spreadsheet (example: Excel, Calc)
  • PDF reader (example: Acrobat Reader, Preview)
  • Compression software (example: WinZip, StuffIt, 7-Zip)

3. Electronic Communication Skills

  • Email, using a common email program (example: MS Outlook, Gmail, Apple    Mail)
  • Compose, Send, Reply, Forward messages
  • Add attachments to a message
  • Retrieve attachments from an email message
  • Copy, paste and print message content
  • Organize email folders
  • Understand what an electronic discussion list is and how to sign up and leave one (example: Listserv, Listproc)

4. Internet Skills

  • Set up an Internet connection and connect to the Internet
  • Have a working knowledge of the World Wide Web and its functions, including     basic site navigation, searching, and installing and upgrading a Web browser
  • Use a browser effectively, including bookmarks, history, toolbar, forward and back buttons
  • Use search engines and directories to find information on the Web
  • Download files and images from a Web page
  • Understand and effectively navigate the hyperlink structure of the Web
  • Understand how keep your information safe while using the Internet

5. Moving Files

  • Transfer files by uploading or downloading
  • View and change folder/document security settings
  • Copy files from hard disk to storage devices and vice versa

Recommended Readings

  • Bruce J. McLaren, Understanding and Using the Internet, West Publishing Company, 610 Opperman Drive, P. 0. Box 64526, St. Paul, MN 55164.
  • Computer Applications for Business, 2nd Edition, DDC Publishing, 275 Madison Avenue, New York, NY10016.
  • Nita Hewitt Rutkosky, Microsoft Office Professional, Paradigm Publishing Company, 875 Montreal Way,St Paul, MN 55102.
  • Robert D. Shepherd, Introduction to Computers and Technology, Paradigm Publishing Inc., 875 Montreal Way, St. Paul, MN 55102.
  • Shelly Cashman Waggoner, Discovering Computers 98, International Thomson Publishing Company, One Main Street, Cambridge, MA 02142.
  • V. Wayne Klemin and Ken Harsha, Microcomputers, A Practical Approach to Software Applications,McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, NY 10016.

Islamic History and Culture

Course Description

This is a general introductory course about Islamic history and culture. It will necessarily entail frequent references to the rise of Islamic civilization, since the time of the Holy Prophet to the fall of Mughal Empire in the Subcontinent and the Ottoman Empire. Special emphasis may be given to Muslim contributions in the development of arts, crafts, sciences, medicine and particularly to the translations of Greco-Roman works of philosophy and literature; and how they contributed to the beginning of European Renaissance. 

Course Objectives

The course will focus on three aspects: the formative period of Islam; its medieval achievements; and its modern situation. Upon completion, students should be able to develop their own understanding of the Islamic history, culture and religion.

Course Contents

  • Introduction to History and the philosophy of history; why study history
  • Pre- Islamic period. Religious, political and social systems before Islam.
  • The Coming of Islam. Period of the Prophet (SAW).
  • Life at Makkah.
  • The Prophet (SAW) at Medina.
  • The Caliphate and the Four Rightly-guided Caliphs.
  • The Umayyad Caliphate
  • The Abbasid Period.
  • Umayyad Dynasty in Spain
  • Islam and Muslims in India
  • Definition of Culture in Islam.
  • Foundations of Islamic culture.
  • Islamic art, civilization and culture.
  • Science, technology, philosophy and administration.


Suggested Readings

  • Abdul Hakim Khalifa. Islamic Ideology.
  • Ali. Amir Syed. History of Sarsons
  • Hitti, Philip K. The History of the Arabs
  • Maududi. Syed Abul Ala. Why Islam?
  • Mazhar-ul-Haq. History of Islam
  • Nadvi. Abul Hassan. Pillars of Islam.
  • Nadvi. Moeenud Din. Tareekh-e-Islam
  • Nicholson. R. The History of the Arabs.
  • Pikthal. M. M. The Cultural Side of Islam.
  • Roy. M. N. Historical Role of Islam.
  • Safiur Rehman Mubarakpoori. Al- Raheeq al- Maqhtoom

Shustery, A. M. A. Outlines of Islamic Culture: historical and Cultural Aspects.

Introduction to Psychology

Course Description

This course offers an introduction to the fundamental principles of psychology and to the major subjects of psychological inquiry. It has been designed to not only provide students with tools necessary for the study of psychology but also presents them with a sampling of the major areas of psychology research. The course begins with a short overview of how psychology developed as an academic discipline and an introduction to a number of the principle methodologies most commonly deployed in its study.

Course Objectives

  • To identify theoretical underpinnings of the major areas of psychology, including cognition (thought, memory, perception), learning, personality, social and environmental influences, development, and physiology of behavior.
  • To explain different models of human behavior based on science versus intuition or general ways of knowing.
  • To recognize ways of pursuing questions in Psychology via discussion of theory and empirical research.
  • To describe connections between knowledge gained in Psychology to everyday life.

Course Contents

1. Introduction to Psychology

  1. Nature and Application of Psychology with special reference to Pakistan.
    1. Historical Background and Schools of Psychology (A Brief Survey)

2. Methods of Psychology

  1. Observation
  2. Case History Method
  3. Experimental Method
  4. Survey Method
  5. Interviewing Techniques

3. Biological Basis of Behavior

  1. Neuron: Structure and Functions
  2. Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System
  3. Endocrine Glands

4. Sensation, Perception and Attention


Characteristics and Major Functions of Different Sensations

(i) Vision: Structure and functions of the Eye.

(ii) Audition: Structure and functions of the Ear.


(i) Nature of Perception

(ii) Factors of Perception: Subjective, Objective and Social

(iii) Kinds of Perception:

Spatial Perception (Perception of Depth and Distance)

Temporal Perception; Auditory PerceptionAttention

(i) Factors, Subjective and Objective

(ii) Span of Attention

(iii) Fluctuation of Attention

(iv) Distraction of Attention (Causes and Control)

Recommended Books

  1. Atkinson R. C., & Smith E. E. (2000). Introduction to psychology (13th ed.).Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
  2. Fernald, L. D., & Fernald, P. S. (2005). Introduction to psychology. USA:WMC Brown Publishers. 16
  3. Glassman, W. E. (2000). Approaches to psychology. Open University Press.
  4. Hayes, N. (2000). Foundation of psychology (3rd ed.). Thomson Learning.
  5. Lahey, B. B. (2004). Psychology: An introduction (8th ed.). McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  6. Leahey, T. H. (1992). A history of psychology: Main currents in psychological thought. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall International, Inc.
  7. Myers, D. G. (1992). Psychology. (3rd ed.). New York: Wadsworth Publishers.
  8. Ormord, J. E. (1995). Educational psychology: Developing learners. Prentice-Hall, Inc.

English-III: Communication and Presentation Skills

Course Description

For professional growth and future development, effective presentation skills and interactive and interpersonal communicative skills are very important. This course offers methods, techniques, and drills significant and useful in optimising communication and presentation skills of the learners, enabling them to face divergent groups of audience with poise and confidence. The course has been divided into modules relating to the essentials, contents, gestures, technology, and variety associated with communication and presentations skills. The presentation skills part focuses on preparing students for long-life skill of preparing and giving presentations. Communication is a vital part of our daily routine. The communication skills part focuses on developing good communication skills among students.

Course Objectives

The course aims to:

  • help students identify essential components of a presentation
  • develop the awareness, knowledge, skills and attitudes required to deliver effective academic presentations and communicate clearly
  • help students learn various presentation and  communication styles and techniques
  • provide techniques to facilitate effective interpersonal and interactive communication
  • guide how to build stronger relationships through powerful communication

Course Contents

1. Introduction

  • Understanding the purpose of Communication
  • Analyze the Audience
  • Communicating with words as well as with body language
  • Writing with a Purpose

2. Presentation skills  

3. Delivering your presentation

4. Speaking with Confidence

5. Communicating Effectively

6. Job Interviews and Communicating Skills

7. Communicating with Customers

8. Communication in a Team

Recommended Readings:

  • Carnegie, Dale. ( ). How to Win Friends & Influence People.
  • Giblin, Les. Skill with People.
  • Newton, Paul. How to communicate effectively.
  • Tracy, Brian. Speak to Win.

Short Fictional Narratives

Course Description

This course is a fertile field for students to broaden their vision with respect to English literature in general and short fiction in particular, written in different cultures and languages. It focuses on students’ critical engagement with different texts that represent a variety of cultures. The short stories in this course have been selected from a wide range of cultures with a view to highlighting the similarities and differences in the writings of different short story writers and how different writers reflect the social and cultural events through their writing with a variety of themes in different styles. The authors included in this course belong to different parts of the world so the works included are quite diverse not only in their form and language but also in themes. The issues and themes reflected or implied in these stories are illusory love, conformity, poverty, the power of words, transformation of identities, feudal structure of rural Punjab, racism in the backdrop of Civil War, political imprisonment, appearance vs reality, feminism, female violence, insanity, women’s emotional complexity, and slavery, to mention a few.

In this course, students will concentrate on seminal short fictions in English written by writers from the different regions of the world who have contributed significantly to literature in English through their narrative form and structure, thematic content, and articulation of human experience.

Narrative studies prepares students for the development and evaluation of original content for short fictions and other narrative platforms. To recognise a good story, to critique, to help shape, realise and transform requires a background in the history of narrative, cross-cultural and contemporary models.

The selection of the primary texts will take into consideration that they are united by their engagement with the struggle for the expression of human identity. Consequently, the selection of the short fictions will keep two things in the foreground: representation of diverse regions and narrative structure.

Course Objectives 

The objectives of this course are

  1. To provide an exposure to some classics in short fiction both in theme and form
  2. To familiarize students with short fiction in English literature by the most recognized and awarded authors
  3. To nurture the ability to think critically and promote intellectual growth of the students
  4. To develop sensitivity towards cultural diversity through a critical study of the selected works and involve them on a personal and emotional level by relating the stories with their own experiences
  5. To make them experience a genuine language context through these stories from different parts of the world

Course Contents

  1. The Nightingale and the Rose Oscar Wilde
  2. The Three StrangersThomas Hardy
  3. The Cask of AmontilladoEdgar Allan Poe
  4. The Darling Anton Chekhov
  5. Hearts and Hands O’ Henry
  6. The Necklace Guy De Maupassant
  7. The Secret Sharer Joseph Conrad
  8. The Other Side of the Hedge E. M. Forster
  9. Eveline James Joyce
  10. The Three Questions Leo Tolstoy
  11. A Hunger Artist  Franz Kafka
  12. A Very Old Man With Enormous WingsGabriel Garcia Marquez
  13. Two WordsIsabel Allende
  14. A Cup of Tea Katherine Mansfield
  15. Everything that Rises Must ConvergeFlannery O’ Connor
  16. The Story of An Hour Kate Chopin
  17. The Richer The Poorer Dorothy West
  18. The Prisoner Who Wore GlassesBessie Head
  19. Lamb to the SlaughterRoald Dahl
  20. BingoTariq Rahman
  21. The Kingdom of CardsRabindranath Tagore
  22. The MartyrNgũgĩ wa Thiong’o
  23. A Watcher of the DeadNadine Gordimer.
  24. RevelationFlannery O’Connor
  25. Nawabdin ElectricianDaniyal Mueenuddin

Suggested Readings

  1. Chekhov, Anton P, and Ralph E. Matlaw. Anton Chekhov’s Short Stories: Texts of the Stories, Backgrounds, Criticism. , 1979. Print.
  2. Ellmann, Richard. James Joyce. New York: Oxford University Press, 1959. Print.
  3. Ellmann, Richard. Oscar Wilde; a Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall, 1969. Print.
  4. Forster, E M, Mary Lago, Linda K. Hughes, and Elizabeth M. L. Walls. The Bbc Talks of E.m. Forster, 1929-1960: A Selected Edition. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2008. Print.
  5. Gillon, Adam. Joseph Conrad. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1982. Print.
  6. Hardy, Thomas, Michael Millgate, Florence E. Hardy, and Florence E. Hardy. The Life and Work of Thomas Hardy. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1985. Print.
  7. Long, E H. O. Henry, the Man and His Work. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1949. Print.
  8. Maupassant, Guy , Clara Bell, Florence Crew-Jones, and Fanny Rousseau-Wallach. The Works of Guy De Maupassant. New York: Printed privately for subscribers only, 1909. Print.
  9. Maupassant, Guy , George B. Ives, and Guy . Maupassant. Guy De Maupassant. , 1903. Print.
  10. Poe, Edgar A. The Cask of Amontillado. Charlottesville, Va: University of Virginia Library Electronic Text Center, 1993. Internet resource.
  11. Rubenstein, Roberta, and Charles R. Larson. Worlds of Fiction. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall, 2002. Print.
  12. Symons, Julian. The Life and Works of Edgar Allen Poe. , 2014. Print
  13. Tolstoy, Leo, and Robert Court. Leo Tolstoy Collected Short Stories. Mankato, MN: Peterson Pub, 2002. Print.
  14. Wilde, Alan. Art and Order: A Study of E.m. Forster. New York: New York University Press, 1964. Print.
  15. Wilson, Kathleen. Short Stories for Students: Presenting Analysis, Context, and Criticism on Commonly Studied Short Stories. Detroit: Gale, 1997. Print

Introduction to Morphology

Course Description

The key aim of the course is to introduce the students to the basic word structure in Pakistani languages. It engages them to have an understanding of words and parts of words. It will help them to understand word structure in Pakistani languages. 

Course Objectives

The objectives of this course are to enable the students to:

  • define and describe the terms like morphemes, morphology etc. 
  • understand basic concepts and principles in morphology
  • apply these principles in analyzing word structures in Pakistan languages
  • compare word formations in Pakistani languages.

Course Contents

  • Introduction to morphology (with examples from Pakistani languages)                      
    • free morphemes: roots and stems
    • bound morphemes: affixes: prefixes, suffixes, infixes, interfixes, circumfixes
    • morphological productivity: productivity of affixes, prefixes, suffixes, infixes
  • Basics of Phonetic Transcription of Words
  • Inflectional Morphology
    • Pluralization, Degree Marking, Verb Forms
  • Derivational Morphology
    • Formation of Nouns, Adjectives, Verbs and Adverbs
    • Minor processes of derivation: blending,  clipping, backformation, acronym, Reduplication
    • derivation by compounding: endocentric, exocentric and copulative compounds
    • derivation by modification of base
  • Morphology of Pakistani Languages
    • word forms in Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto and other Pakistani languages
    • Descriptive analysis of word forms in Pakistani languages
  • Morpho-Semantics- semantic change in word formation processes
  • Morphology Interface with Phonology and Syntax
  • Morphology-Syntax Interface

Recommended Readings

  1. Aronoff, M.  (1994). Morphology by itself.  MIT Press, Cambridge.
  2. Bauer, L. (2003). Introducing Linguistic Morphology–Edinburgh University Press
  3. Booij, G. (2005) The Grammar of Words–An Introduction to Linguistic Morphology
  4. David et al. (2009). Urdu Morphology. Oxford University Press, London
  5. Mangrio, R. A. (2016). The Morphology of Loanwords in Urdu: the Persian, Arabic and      English Strands, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle upon Tyne.
  6. McCarthy, A. C (2002). An Introduction to English Morphology-Words and their Structure,    Edinburgh University Press. Edinburgh
  7. Plag, I. (2002). Word Formation in English -Cambridge University Press. Cambridge
  8. Ayto, J. (1999). Twentieth Century Words, Oxford: OUP .
  9. Bauer, L. (2001). Morphological Productivity, Cambridge University Press
  10. Halpern, A. (1995). On the placement & morphology of clitics. CSLI

Publications, Stanford

  1. Yu, A. C (2006) A Natural History of Infixation. Oxford University Press, Chicago
  2. Zwicky, A. (1985b). ‘How to Describe Inflection.’ Proceedings of the BerkeleyLinguistics Society 11: 372-386.  Berkeley, California.
  3. Zwicky, A and Pullum, G. (1992). A misconceived approach to morphology. InProceedings of WCCFL 91, ed. D. Bates. CSLI, Palo Alto, 387-398.
Scroll to top