Course Title: Pakistan Studies


This Course covers the brief history of the territories which now constitute Pakistan from ancient times to the present. The course is divided in three major sections. In first section, the historical roots of Pakistan are traced in Indus civilization and it is studied how Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Islam was spread in this region in different phases, and what kind of ruling dynasties had ruled the region in ancient and medieval times. The political and constitutional developments in British colonial phase are discussed with a special focus on how it caused the rise of Muslim separatism and ultimately led to the division of the sub-continent in 1947.

In second section, the political and constitutional developments in independent Pakistan are traced from 1947 to the contemporary times to study how Pakistan has oscillated between democratic and military rules.

Finally, in the third section society, culture, ethnic composition, economy, foreign policy and some current developments are covered.

•Make students aware about the rich past of the region which now constitutes Pakistan.
• Develop better understanding of the complex history, the governmental structures and the political and constitutional developments.
• Develop awareness about the ethnic composition, territorial units, cultural heritage, economic problems, and current challenges in the foreign policy of Pakistan.

After completing this course, the students will be able to:
• Students have learned how Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Islam have been practiced by the people in the land of Pakistan in different periods.
• Students have been sensitized about the religious, cultural and ethnic diversity of Pakistan.
• Students have become aware of the history, the nation-state building and the political system of Pakistan.


i. The rise of Muslim Separatism, Two Nation Theory and Ideology of Pakistan with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (Aligarh Movement), Allama Muhammad Iqbal (Allahabad Address 1930), Quaid-iAzam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and his Fourteen Points to Lahore Resolution 1940.

i. Political and Constitutional Developments in Pakistan 1947-58. Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah as a first Governor General, Objectives Resolution 1949, Causes of delay in constitution making, salient features of 1956 Constitution Common Compulsory and General Courses for all BS Programs of Social Sciences
ii. First two Martial Laws Dismemberment of Pakistan 1958-71 (Ayub Era- BD System, features of 1962 Constitution, Indo-Pak war of 1965, Taskhent Agreement, Industrial and agricultural policy, end of Ayub government. Martial Law of General Yahya Khan- LFO, Election 1970, Indo –Pak war of 1971 and Separation of East Pakistan.
iii. Democratic government of Zulifiqar Ali Bhutto-1972-77, Simla agreement 1972, constitution of 1973 (1st amendment to 7th mendment),policy of Nationalization, establishment and promotion of heavy industry, Nuclear program etc.
iv. Third Martial Law: Zia-ul-Haq’s Military Rule 1977-1988- Islamization, Assassination of Bhutto, Afghanistan issue,Transition towards Democracy, 8th Amendment in the constitution of 1973 etc.
v. Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif’s Democratic interlude 1988-1999,emergence of Taliban, Shariat Bill, Nuclear explosions, 14th and 15th Amendments, Kargil War.
vi. Fourth martial law: Parvez Musharraf’s Military Rule- 1999-2008, War on Terror, 17th Amendment, PCO, Brief introduction of NRO, NAB, NADRA, PEMRA, Assassination of Benazir Bhutto.
vii.The Revival of Democracy- 2008-2019: PPP government-2008-2013, 3 rd term of Nawaz Sharif -2013-2018, Resignation of Parvez Musharaf, Energy crises and Rental power plants, War on terror, Restoration of judiciary, Madrasah Reforms, 18 th Amendment, 7 th NFC Award, Drone attacks, Abbottabad Operation, CEPC, Infrastructure, National security and defense policy, Karachi Operation ,Operation Zarb-e-Azb.

i. Pakistani Society and Culture: Characteristics of Pakistani Culture, Ethnic groups and Ethnicity.
ii. Human Rights and Minorities in Pakistan
iii. The merger of FATA in Khyber Pukhtunkhawa.
iv. The Status of AJK and Gilgit Baltistan.
v. Foreign Policy of Pakistan (Definition, Principles, Determinants, Challenges). Relations with India, Afghanistan, Iran, China (CEPC), USA, USSR(Russia), Saudi Arabia.) Strategic Problems and Defense Policy of Pakistan.
vi. The Economy of Pakistan: Issues of Pakistan’s Economy, Agriculture, Industry, Tax Revenue.

• Ahmed, Ishtiaq (2013) Pakistan the Garrison State: Origins, Evolution, Consequences 19472011. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
•Ikram, S.M. (2000) History of Muslim Civilization in India & Pakistan. Lahore: Institute of Islamic Culture.
• Jalal, Aysha(1994) The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Common Compulsory and General Courses for all BS Programs of Social Sciences
• Jaffrelot, Christophe (2015) The Pakistan Paradox: Instability and Resilience. Translated by Cynthia Schoch, (New Delhi: Random House).
• Kazimi, M.R. (2006) Pakistan Studies. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
• Kazimi, M.R. (2008) A Concise History of Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
• Khan, Hamid (2018) Constitutional and Political History of Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
• Sattar, Abdul (2017) Pakistan’s Foreign Policy (1947-2016): A Concise History (Fourth Edition). Karachi: Oxford University Press.

Pakistan Studies