1st Semester

Study Skills

Course Description

The main purpose of this course is to guide students in their first year of learning and impart basic study skills. It is designed with the view to enable them to take immediate control of their learning. The course will enable students to devise and follow “study systems” and equip them with the ability to think critically and adopt effective learning strategies. With the help of various study techniques and styles and other available resources, the students will be able to improve their academic performance.

Course Objectives

  • To help students learn basic self-management and study skills
  • To enable them to use combination of skills to minimize risks of failure
  • To make them become confident and successful in the new learning environment

Course Contents

  1. Seeking Success in University
  2. Knowing your campus and its resources
  3. Form An Academic Support Group
  4. Know Where to Find  Help
  5. Stay Informed
  6. Get Involved
  7. Motivating Yourself to Learn
  8. Assess Academic Strengths and Weaknesses
  9. Discover and use your learning style
  10. Develop Critical Thinking & Study Skills
  11. Adapt learning style to teaching method
  12. Using Critical Thinking Strategies
  13. Examine Your Assumption
  14. Make Predictions
  15. Read With A Purpose
  16. Sharpen Your Interpretations
  17. Find Implications in What You Learn
  18. Read and Understand Graphics
  19. Evaluate what you learn
  20. Setting Goals and Solving Problems
  21. Set goals for success in college
  22. How to develop a positive attitude
  23. Sharpening Your Classroom Skills
  24. Prepare for Class
  25. Become an Active Listener
  26. Develop A Personal Note-Taking System
  27. Guidelines for Note Taking
  28. The Informal Outline/Key Words System
  29. The Cornell Method
  30. Matching Note-Taking Style and Learning Style
  31. Learn To Make Effective Presentations
  32. Making the Most of Your Time
  33. How to GRAB Some Time
  34. Scheduling Your Time
  35. Time Management and Learning Style
  36. Procrastination
  37. Creating Your Study System
  38. SQ3R:  The Basic System
  39. Devising Your Study System
  40. Organizing Information for Study
  41. Memorization
  42. Concept or Information Maps
  43. Comparison Charts
  44. Time Lines
  45. Process Diagrams
  46. Informal Outlines
  47. Branching Diagrams
  48. Controlling Your Concentration
  49. Concentrations
  50. Eliminate Distractions
  51. Use A Study System
  52. Strategies to Improve Concentration
  53. Preparing for Tests
  54. How To Prepare for Tests: Three Steps
  55. Develop a Test-taking Routine
  56. Master Objective Tests
  57. Know How  to Answer Essay Questions
  58. Becoming an Active Reader
  59. Reading Actively
  60. Find the Main Idea, Details, and Implications
  61. Using a Textbook Marking System
  62. How to use a dictionary
  63. Building Career Skills
  64. Working in the New Economy  
  65. Where the Jobs will be
  66. Choosing Your Future
  67. Your course of Study
  68. Your Plan
  69. What Employers Want
  70. Career Skills to Develop
  71. Workplace Ethics
  72. From University to Work
  73. Your Resume and Cover Letter
  74. The Interview

Recommended Readings

  • Bain, Ken. (2012). What the best college students do.
  • Kanar, Carol C. (2001). The Confident Student. Houghton Mifflin Co.
  • Mcmillan, Kathleen. (2011). The Study skills book. Pearson.
  • Pauk, Walter. How to Study in College.
  • Wallace, M.J. (1980). Study Skills in English.

Introduction to Geography

Course Description

Analyses the physical structure of the earth’s surface, including landforms, weather, climate, and biogeography. Emphasizes understanding of what makes each point on Earth unique and how humans interact with physical systems in multiple ways.

Course Objectives

Students should be able to:

  • Explain the causes of seasons
  • Discuss the formation of major landforms.
  • Discuss the function, temperature profile and composition of the atmosphere.
  • Discuss the hydrologic cycle, and the distribution and allocation of water resources for humans.
  • Analyze patterns and consequences of human environment interaction.

Course Outline


  1. Definition of Geography
    1. Scope of Geography
    1. Trends in evolution of Geography as a science
    1. Geography and its relationships with other sciences


2.1 Physical Geography

2.2 Human Geography

2.2.1 Economic Geography

2.2.2 Urban Geography

2.2.3 Population Geography


3.1 Earth within the solar system

3.2 Shape, size and movements of the earth

3.3 Location and time on earth

         3.3.1 Latitude, longitude network

         3.3.2 Local Time, Standard time

         3.3.3 Time zones and International Date Line


4.1 Lithosphere and its main characteristics

4.2 Hydrosphere and its main characteristics

4.3 Atmosphere and its main characteristics

4.4 Biosphere and its main characteristics


5.1 Man-environment interaction

5.2 Introduction to theories of Environmental Determinism/Possibilism

5.3 Human activities in relationship with environment

5.4 Human activities and their impact on environment

5.5 Human activities, utilization of environmental resources and concept of Sustainability

Suggested Readings

  1. Modern Physical Geography By A.N. Strahler 2004
  2. Human Geography: Culture, Society And space By H.J.D. Bliji 2002
  3. Environment, Resources and Conservationby S. Owen and P. Owen 1990

Pakistan Studies


This Course covers the brief history of the territories which now constitute Pakistan from ancient times to the present. The course is divided in three major sections. In first section, the historical roots of Pakistan are traced in Indus civilization and it is studied how Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Islam was spread in this region in different phases, and what kind of ruling dynasties had ruled the region in ancient and medieval times. The political and constitutional developments in British colonial phase are discussed with a special focus on how it caused the rise of Muslim separatism and ultimately led to the division of the sub-continent in 1947.

In second section, the political and constitutional developments in independent Pakistan are traced from 1947 to the contemporary times to study how Pakistan has oscillated between democratic and military rules.

Finally, in the third section society, culture, ethnic composition, economy, foreign policy and some current developments are covered.

•Make students aware about the rich past of the region which now constitutes Pakistan.
• Develop better understanding of the complex history, the governmental structures and the political and constitutional developments.
• Develop awareness about the ethnic composition, territorial units, cultural heritage, economic problems, and current challenges in the foreign policy of Pakistan.

After completing this course, the students will be able to:
• Students have learned how Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Islam have been practiced by the people in the land of Pakistan in different periods.
• Students have been sensitized about the religious, cultural and ethnic diversity of Pakistan.
• Students have become aware of the history, the nation-state building and the political system of Pakistan.


i. The rise of Muslim Separatism, Two Nation Theory and Ideology of Pakistan with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (Aligarh Movement), Allama Muhammad Iqbal (Allahabad Address 1930), Quaid-iAzam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and his Fourteen Points to Lahore Resolution 1940.

i. Political and Constitutional Developments in Pakistan 1947-58. Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah as a first Governor General, Objectives Resolution 1949, Causes of delay in constitution making, salient features of 1956 Constitution Common Compulsory and General Courses for all BS Programs of Social Sciences
ii. First two Martial Laws Dismemberment of Pakistan 1958-71 (Ayub Era- BD System, features of 1962 Constitution, Indo-Pak war of 1965, Taskhent Agreement, Industrial and agricultural policy, end of Ayub government. Martial Law of General Yahya Khan- LFO, Election 1970, Indo –Pak war of 1971 and Separation of East Pakistan.
iii. Democratic government of Zulifiqar Ali Bhutto-1972-77, Simla agreement 1972, constitution of 1973 (1st amendment to 7th mendment),policy of Nationalization, establishment and promotion of heavy industry, Nuclear program etc.
iv. Third Martial Law: Zia-ul-Haq’s Military Rule 1977-1988- Islamization, Assassination of Bhutto, Afghanistan issue,Transition towards Democracy, 8th Amendment in the constitution of 1973 etc.
v. Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif’s Democratic interlude 1988-1999,emergence of Taliban, Shariat Bill, Nuclear explosions, 14th and 15th Amendments, Kargil War.
vi. Fourth martial law: Parvez Musharraf’s Military Rule- 1999-2008, War on Terror, 17th Amendment, PCO, Brief introduction of NRO, NAB, NADRA, PEMRA, Assassination of Benazir Bhutto.
vii.The Revival of Democracy- 2008-2019: PPP government-2008-2013, 3 rd term of Nawaz Sharif -2013-2018, Resignation of Parvez Musharaf, Energy crises and Rental power plants, War on terror, Restoration of judiciary, Madrasah Reforms, 18 th Amendment, 7 th NFC Award, Drone attacks, Abbottabad Operation, CEPC, Infrastructure, National security and defense policy, Karachi Operation ,Operation Zarb-e-Azb.

i. Pakistani Society and Culture: Characteristics of Pakistani Culture, Ethnic groups and Ethnicity.
ii. Human Rights and Minorities in Pakistan
iii. The merger of FATA in Khyber Pukhtunkhawa.
iv. The Status of AJK and Gilgit Baltistan.
v. Foreign Policy of Pakistan (Definition, Principles, Determinants, Challenges). Relations with India, Afghanistan, Iran, China (CEPC), USA, USSR(Russia), Saudi Arabia.) Strategic Problems and Defense Policy of Pakistan.
vi. The Economy of Pakistan: Issues of Pakistan’s Economy, Agriculture, Industry, Tax Revenue.

• Ahmed, Ishtiaq (2013) Pakistan the Garrison State: Origins, Evolution, Consequences 19472011. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
•Ikram, S.M. (2000) History of Muslim Civilization in India & Pakistan. Lahore: Institute of Islamic Culture.
• Jalal, Aysha(1994) The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Common Compulsory and General Courses for all BS Programs of Social Sciences
• Jaffrelot, Christophe (2015) The Pakistan Paradox: Instability and Resilience. Translated by Cynthia Schoch, (New Delhi: Random House).
• Kazimi, M.R. (2006) Pakistan Studies. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
• Kazimi, M.R. (2008) A Concise History of Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
• Khan, Hamid (2018) Constitutional and Political History of Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
• Sattar, Abdul (2017) Pakistan’s Foreign Policy (1947-2016): A Concise History (Fourth Edition). Karachi: Oxford University Press.

English-I: Reading and Writing Skills

Course Description

The course is designed to help students take a deep approach in reading and writing academic texts which involve effective learning strategies and techniques aimed at improving the desired skills. The course consists of two major parts: the ‘reading section’ focusses on recognizing a topic sentence, skimming, scanning, use of cohesive devices, identifying facts and opinions, guess meanings of unfamiliar words. The ‘writing section’ deals with the knowledge and use of various grammatical components such as, parts of speech, tenses, voice, narration, modals etc. in practical contexts.    

Course Objectives

  • To enable students to identify main/topic sentences.
  • To teach them to use effective strategies while reading texts.
  • To acquaint them with cohesive devices and their function in the text.

Course Contents

1.      Reading Skills

   •        Identify Main Idea / Topic sentences

   •        Skimming, Scanning, and Inference / Find Specific and General Information Quickly

   •        Distinguish Between Relevant and Irrelevant Information According to Purpose for Reading

   •        Recognise and Interpret Cohesive Devices

   •        Distinguish Between Fact and Opinion

   •        Guess the Meanings of Unfamiliar Words Using Context Clues

   •        Use the Dictionary for Finding out Meanings and Use of Unfamiliar Words

   •        Practice Exercises with Every Above Mentioned Aspect of Reading

2.      Writing Skills

   •        Parts of Speech

   •        Phrase, clause and sentence structure

   •        Combining sentences

   •        Tenses: meaning and use

   •        Modals

   •        Use of active and passive voice

   •        Reported Speech

   •        Writing good sentences

   •        Error Free writing

   •        Paragraph writing with topic sentence

   •        Summary writing

Note: Teachers need to include practice activities, exercises and worksheets on the provided topics.

Recommended Readings

   •        Howe, D. H, Kirkpatrick, T. A., & Kirkpatrick, D. L. (2004). Oxford English for undergraduates.  Karachi: Oxford University Press.

   •        Eastwood, J. (2004).  English Practice Grammar (New edition with tests and answers). Karachi: Oxford University Press.

   •        Murphy, R. (2003).  Grammar in use.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Islamic Studies (for ADP)

Course Description

Islamic studies provides an introduction to Islamic teachings, history in classical and modern periods, and contemporary thought.

Course Objective

  • To enhance understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.

Course Contents

1. Introduction to Quranic Studies

  • Basic Concepts of Quran
  • History of Quran
  • Uloom-ul -Quran

2. Study of Selected Text of Holy Quran

  • Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286)
  • Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi

3. Verse No-1-18

Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful

4. Verse No-1-11

  • Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.63-77)
  • Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154)

5. Study of Selected Text of Holy Quran

  • Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.6, 21, 40, 56, 57, 58.)
  • Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18,19, 20) Related to thinking, Day of Judgment
  • Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar, Tadabar (Verse No-1,14)

6. Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) I

  • Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood)
  • Life of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) in Makkah
  • Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah

7. Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) II

  • Life of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) in Madina
  • Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina
  • Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina

8. Introduction to Sunnah

  • Basic Concepts of Hadith
  • History of Hadith
  • Kinds of Hadith
  • Uloom-ul-Hadith
  • Sunnah & Hadith
  • Legal Position of Sunnah

9. Introduction to Islamic Law & Jurisprudence

  • Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence
  • History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence
  • Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence
  • Nature of Differences in Islamic Law

10. Islam and Sectarianism

11. Islamic Culture & Civilization

  • Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization
  • Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization
  • Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization
  • Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues

12. Islam & Science

  • Basic Concepts of Islam & Science
  • Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science
  • Quranic & Science

13. Islamic Economic System

  • Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System
  • Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics
  • Islamic Concept of Riba
  • Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce

14. Political System of Islam

  • Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System
  • Islamic Concept of Sovereignty
  • Basic Institutions of Govt. in Islam

15. Islamic History

  • Period of khilafat-e-rashida
  • Period of Umayyads
  • Period of Abbasids

16. Social System of Islam

  • Basic concepts of social system of Islam
  • Elements of family
  • Ethical values of Islam

Recommended Readings

  • Ahmad Hasan, “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute, International Islamic University, Islamabad (1993)
  • Dr. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad (2001)
  • H.S. Bhatia, “Studies in Islamic Law, Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989)
  • Hameed ullah Muhammad, ‘Introduction to Islam Maulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi,”
  • Hameed ullah Muhammad, “Emergence of Islam” , IRI, Islamabad
  • Hameed ullah Muhammad, “Muslim Conduct of State”
  • Hussain Hamid Hassan, “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” Leaf Publication Islamabad, Pakistan.

Mir Waliullah, “Muslim Jurisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982)

Introduction to Literary Studies

Course Description

This course introduces literature as cultural and historical phenomena. This entails a study of history of various periods of English Literature from Renaissance to the present. The course also, very briefly, touches upon different theoretical approaches to literature to introduce the student to literary critique and evaluation. A general understanding of literary theory as a broad field of philosophical concepts and principles is also crucial to the understanding of literary piece.           

Course Objectives

   1.      To study the history and practice of English as a scholarly discipline.

   2.      To study the history and development of each genre through excerpts of literary texts.

   3.      To do close reading of texts and analyze them with different critical frameworks.

   4.      To analyze and criticize the works of literature in their cultural and historical contexts.

   5.      To assess the influence of literary movements in Britain on English literature from all parts of the world.

Course Contents

      1.  William Henry Hudson. Introduction to the Study of Literature (1913)

      2.   Andrew Sanders. The Short Oxford History of English Literature(1994)

      3.   Mario Klarer. Introduction to Literary Studies (1999)

      4    J. H. Miller. On Literature (2002)

Note: The teacher will use Sander’s history with any one of the three books on literature as core texts.

Suggested Readings

  • Albert, E. (1979). History of English Literature (5th ed.). Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Alexander, M. (2000). A History of English Literature. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Blamires, H. (1984). A Short History of English Literature. London: Routledge.
  • Carter, R., & McRae, J. (1997). The Routledge History of Literature in English, Britain and Ireland.London: Routledge.
  • Chin, B. A., Wolfe, D., Copeland, J., & Dudzinski, M. A. (2001). Glencoe Literature: British Literature. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
  • Compton-Rickett, A. (1912). A History of English Literature. London: T. C. and E. C. Jack.
  • Daiches, D. (1968). A Critical History of English Literature. London: Martin Secker and Warburg Ltd.
  • Fletcher, R. H. (1919). A History of English Literature. Boston: R. G. Badger.
  • Legouis, E., & Cazamian, L. (1960). A History of English Literature. London: J. M. Dent and Sons.

Introduction to Language Studies

Course Description

Language is central to human experience. This course provides a comprehensive overview of language origin, evolution of language as human faculty, and traces the history of English language in order to provide an idea how languages developed. The part on the history of the English language covers story of English language from beginning to the present. The course also includes a brief introduction of the history of linguistics with special reference to various schools of thought that have contributed significantly to the development of Linguistics.

Course Objectives

This course aims to:

  • Give students a comprehensive overview of language as human faculty.
  • Familiarize students with different stories about the origin of language.
  • Provide students an overview of how a language develops through a comprehensive exposure to English language development.
  • Enable students to identify major theoretical formulations in the development of linguistics.

Course Contents

  1. Language Origin
  2. Language as a divine gift
  3. Natural sound source theories
  4. Social interaction source theories
  5. The Physical adaptation sources
  6. The genetic source
  7. Speech vs Writing
  8. Primacy of speech
  9. Speech vs. Writing
  10. Origin of writing
  11. Types of writing systems
  12. Language as Human Faculty
  13. Human Language vs animal communication
  14. Characteristics of Language: Design features
  15. Animals lack language: A controversy
  16. Language Families
  17. What is a language family?
  18. Language Families in the World: A Brief Overview
  19. Historical Linguistics
  20. What is linguistics?
  21. What is historical linguistics?
  22. What does historical linguistics study? (phonological, morphological, syntactic, and semantic changes)
  23. Methods of Language reconstruction

Evolution of English Language

  • Old & Middle English Periods
  • Grammatical categories
  • Inflections
  • Grammatical gender
  • Renaissance
  • Old, Middle, and Modern English (grammatical categories)
  • Shakespeare
  • 18th Century
  • Major characteristics of the age
  • Problem of refining and fixing the language
  • Swift’s proposal
  • Johnson’s Dictionary
  • Grammarians
  • Vocabulary formation
  • Introduction of passives
  • 19th Century
  • Important events and influences
  • Sources of new words
  • Pidgins   and Creoles
  • Spelling reforms
  • Development of Dictionary
  • Verb-adverb combination
  • English Language in America
  • Americanism
  • Archive Features
  • Difference between the British and American English

Development of Modern Linguistics

  1. Modern Linguistics
    1. Emergence of Modern Linguistics: Saussure
    1. Structuralism
    1. American Structuralism
  2. The Prague School
  3. Contemporary Approaches to Linguistics
  4. Functional Linguistics

Recommended Readings

  • Bough, A.C. & Cable, T. (2002). A History of English Language. London: Prentice Hall, Inc.
  • Campbell, L. (2001), ‘The history of linguistics’, in M. Aronoff and J. Rees-Miller (eds),The  Handbook of Linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, pp. 81-104. 
  • Joseph, J.E. (2002), From Whitney to Chomsky: essays in the history of American linguistics
    Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Yule, George. (2006). The Study of Language: 4th/ 5th Edition, Cambridge University Press.
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