Introduction to Geography

Course Description

Analyses the physical structure of the earth’s surface, including landforms, weather, climate, and biogeography. Emphasizes understanding of what makes each point on Earth unique and how humans interact with physical systems in multiple ways.

Course Objectives

Students should be able to:

  • Explain the causes of seasons
  • Discuss the formation of major landforms.
  • Discuss the function, temperature profile and composition of the atmosphere.
  • Discuss the hydrologic cycle, and the distribution and allocation of water resources for humans.
  • Analyze patterns and consequences of human environment interaction.

Course Outline


  1. Definition of Geography
    1. Scope of Geography
    1. Trends in evolution of Geography as a science
    1. Geography and its relationships with other sciences


2.1 Physical Geography

2.2 Human Geography

2.2.1 Economic Geography

2.2.2 Urban Geography

2.2.3 Population Geography


3.1 Earth within the solar system

3.2 Shape, size and movements of the earth

3.3 Location and time on earth

         3.3.1 Latitude, longitude network

         3.3.2 Local Time, Standard time

         3.3.3 Time zones and International Date Line


4.1 Lithosphere and its main characteristics

4.2 Hydrosphere and its main characteristics

4.3 Atmosphere and its main characteristics

4.4 Biosphere and its main characteristics


5.1 Man-environment interaction

5.2 Introduction to theories of Environmental Determinism/Possibilism

5.3 Human activities in relationship with environment

5.4 Human activities and their impact on environment

5.5 Human activities, utilization of environmental resources and concept of Sustainability

Suggested Readings

  1. Modern Physical Geography By A.N. Strahler 2004
  2. Human Geography: Culture, Society And space By H.J.D. Bliji 2002
  3. Environment, Resources and Conservationby S. Owen and P. Owen 1990

Elementary Mathematics & Statistics

Course Contents

  1. a.   Introduction to Set Theory

b.  Types of Set

c.   Builder Notation Form/Roaster Form

d.   Basic Operations on Set (Union, Intersection)

  • Functions
  • Types of Function
  • a.   De Morgan’s Law
  • Distributive Law
  • Commutative Law
  • Associative Law
  • a.   Introduction to Number Theory
  • Real Number System
  • Complex Number System
  • a.   Linear Equations

b.   Single Variable Equations

c.    Multi Variable Equations

  • a.   Matrices

b.   Introduction to Matrices

c.   Types of Matrices

7.    a.  Matrix inverse

          b.  Determinant

  • a.   Quadratic Equations

b.   Solution of a Quadratic Equation

c.   Qualitative Analysis of Roots of a Quadratic Equation

  • a.   Equation Reducible to Quadratic Equation

b.   Cube Roots of Unity

c.   Relation between Roots & Coefficient of Quadratic Equations

  1. a    Sequence & Series
  2. Arithmetic Progression
  3. Geometric Progression
  4. Harmonic Progression
  5. a.  Trigonometry
  6. Fundamentals of Trigonometry
  7. Trigonometric Identities
  8. a.    Binomial Theorem
  9. Introduction to Mathematical Induction
  10. Binomial Theorem with Rational & Irrational Indices

13.   a.   Mean

          b.   Mode

          c.   Medium

Introduction to Political Science

Course Objectives

The objective of this course is to introduce the students with the fundamentals of the subject of Political Science and prepare them for advanced studies in the forth coming semesters. The very concepts and terminology commonly used in the further courses of studies are taught to make the students friendly with the subject.

Course Contents

  1. Definition, Nature, Scope and Sub-fields of Political Science.
  2. Relationship of Political Science with other social sciences.
  3. Approaches to the study of Political Science: Traditional and behavioural approach.
  4. State: its origin and evolution; Western and Islamic concepts of state.
  5. Nation and Sovereignty.
  6. Basic concepts of Political Science: Power, Authority, Legitimacy.
  7. Organs of Government: Legislature, Executive, Judiciary.

Note: Sub-fields of Political Science include: Political Philosophy/Theory; Comparative Politics; IntenationalRelations; Public Administration/Public Policy; Local Government, etc.

Suggested Readings

  1. Haq, Mazhar ul. Theory and Practice in Political Science, Lahore Bookland , 1996.
  2. Mackenzi, Ian (Ed.). Political Concepts: A Reader and Guide. Edinburgh, University Press, 2005.
  3.  Sarwar, Muhammad. Introduction to Political Science. Lahore Ilmi Kutub Khana, 1996.

Islamic History and Culture

Course Description

This is a general introductory course about Islamic history and culture. It will necessarily entail frequent references to the rise of Islamic civilization, since the time of the Holy Prophet to the fall of Mughal Empire in the Subcontinent and the Ottoman Empire. Special emphasis may be given to Muslim contributions in the development of arts, crafts, sciences, medicine and particularly to the translations of Greco-Roman works of philosophy and literature; and how they contributed to the beginning of European Renaissance. 

Course Objectives

The course will focus on three aspects: the formative period of Islam; its medieval achievements; and its modern situation. Upon completion, students should be able to develop their own understanding of the Islamic history, culture and religion.

Course Contents

  • Introduction to History and the philosophy of history; why study history
  • Pre- Islamic period. Religious, political and social systems before Islam.
  • The Coming of Islam. Period of the Prophet (SAW).
  • Life at Makkah.
  • The Prophet (SAW) at Medina.
  • The Caliphate and the Four Rightly-guided Caliphs.
  • The Umayyad Caliphate
  • The Abbasid Period.
  • Umayyad Dynasty in Spain
  • Islam and Muslims in India
  • Definition of Culture in Islam.
  • Foundations of Islamic culture.
  • Islamic art, civilization and culture.
  • Science, technology, philosophy and administration.


Suggested Readings

  • Abdul Hakim Khalifa. Islamic Ideology.
  • Ali. Amir Syed. History of Sarsons
  • Hitti, Philip K. The History of the Arabs
  • Maududi. Syed Abul Ala. Why Islam?
  • Mazhar-ul-Haq. History of Islam
  • Nadvi. Abul Hassan. Pillars of Islam.
  • Nadvi. Moeenud Din. Tareekh-e-Islam
  • Nicholson. R. The History of the Arabs.
  • Pikthal. M. M. The Cultural Side of Islam.
  • Roy. M. N. Historical Role of Islam.
  • Safiur Rehman Mubarakpoori. Al- Raheeq al- Maqhtoom

Shustery, A. M. A. Outlines of Islamic Culture: historical and Cultural Aspects.

Introduction to Psychology

Course Description

This course offers an introduction to the fundamental principles of psychology and to the major subjects of psychological inquiry. It has been designed to not only provide students with tools necessary for the study of psychology but also presents them with a sampling of the major areas of psychology research. The course begins with a short overview of how psychology developed as an academic discipline and an introduction to a number of the principle methodologies most commonly deployed in its study.

Course Objectives

  • To identify theoretical underpinnings of the major areas of psychology, including cognition (thought, memory, perception), learning, personality, social and environmental influences, development, and physiology of behavior.
  • To explain different models of human behavior based on science versus intuition or general ways of knowing.
  • To recognize ways of pursuing questions in Psychology via discussion of theory and empirical research.
  • To describe connections between knowledge gained in Psychology to everyday life.

Course Contents

1. Introduction to Psychology

  1. Nature and Application of Psychology with special reference to Pakistan.
    1. Historical Background and Schools of Psychology (A Brief Survey)

2. Methods of Psychology

  1. Observation
  2. Case History Method
  3. Experimental Method
  4. Survey Method
  5. Interviewing Techniques

3. Biological Basis of Behavior

  1. Neuron: Structure and Functions
  2. Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System
  3. Endocrine Glands

4. Sensation, Perception and Attention


Characteristics and Major Functions of Different Sensations

(i) Vision: Structure and functions of the Eye.

(ii) Audition: Structure and functions of the Ear.


(i) Nature of Perception

(ii) Factors of Perception: Subjective, Objective and Social

(iii) Kinds of Perception:

Spatial Perception (Perception of Depth and Distance)

Temporal Perception; Auditory PerceptionAttention

(i) Factors, Subjective and Objective

(ii) Span of Attention

(iii) Fluctuation of Attention

(iv) Distraction of Attention (Causes and Control)

Recommended Books

  1. Atkinson R. C., & Smith E. E. (2000). Introduction to psychology (13th ed.).Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
  2. Fernald, L. D., & Fernald, P. S. (2005). Introduction to psychology. USA:WMC Brown Publishers. 16
  3. Glassman, W. E. (2000). Approaches to psychology. Open University Press.
  4. Hayes, N. (2000). Foundation of psychology (3rd ed.). Thomson Learning.
  5. Lahey, B. B. (2004). Psychology: An introduction (8th ed.). McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  6. Leahey, T. H. (1992). A history of psychology: Main currents in psychological thought. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall International, Inc.
  7. Myers, D. G. (1992). Psychology. (3rd ed.). New York: Wadsworth Publishers.
  8. Ormord, J. E. (1995). Educational psychology: Developing learners. Prentice-Hall, Inc.