Short Fictional Narratives

Course Description

This course is a fertile field for students to broaden their vision with respect to English literature in general and short fiction in particular, written in different cultures and languages. It focuses on students’ critical engagement with different texts that represent a variety of cultures. The short stories in this course have been selected from a wide range of cultures with a view to highlighting the similarities and differences in the writings of different short story writers and how different writers reflect the social and cultural events through their writing with a variety of themes in different styles. The authors included in this course belong to different parts of the world so the works included are quite diverse not only in their form and language but also in themes. The issues and themes reflected or implied in these stories are illusory love, conformity, poverty, the power of words, transformation of identities, feudal structure of rural Punjab, racism in the backdrop of Civil War, political imprisonment, appearance vs reality, feminism, female violence, insanity, women’s emotional complexity, and slavery, to mention a few.

In this course, students will concentrate on seminal short fictions in English written by writers from the different regions of the world who have contributed significantly to literature in English through their narrative form and structure, thematic content, and articulation of human experience.

Narrative studies prepares students for the development and evaluation of original content for short fictions and other narrative platforms. To recognise a good story, to critique, to help shape, realise and transform requires a background in the history of narrative, cross-cultural and contemporary models.

The selection of the primary texts will take into consideration that they are united by their engagement with the struggle for the expression of human identity. Consequently, the selection of the short fictions will keep two things in the foreground: representation of diverse regions and narrative structure.

Course Objectives 

The objectives of this course are

  1. To provide an exposure to some classics in short fiction both in theme and form
  2. To familiarize students with short fiction in English literature by the most recognized and awarded authors
  3. To nurture the ability to think critically and promote intellectual growth of the students
  4. To develop sensitivity towards cultural diversity through a critical study of the selected works and involve them on a personal and emotional level by relating the stories with their own experiences
  5. To make them experience a genuine language context through these stories from different parts of the world

Course Contents

  1. The Nightingale and the Rose Oscar Wilde
  2. The Three StrangersThomas Hardy
  3. The Cask of AmontilladoEdgar Allan Poe
  4. The Darling Anton Chekhov
  5. Hearts and Hands O’ Henry
  6. The Necklace Guy De Maupassant
  7. The Secret Sharer Joseph Conrad
  8. The Other Side of the Hedge E. M. Forster
  9. Eveline James Joyce
  10. The Three Questions Leo Tolstoy
  11. A Hunger Artist  Franz Kafka
  12. A Very Old Man With Enormous WingsGabriel Garcia Marquez
  13. Two WordsIsabel Allende
  14. A Cup of Tea Katherine Mansfield
  15. Everything that Rises Must ConvergeFlannery O’ Connor
  16. The Story of An Hour Kate Chopin
  17. The Richer The Poorer Dorothy West
  18. The Prisoner Who Wore GlassesBessie Head
  19. Lamb to the SlaughterRoald Dahl
  20. BingoTariq Rahman
  21. The Kingdom of CardsRabindranath Tagore
  22. The MartyrNgũgĩ wa Thiong’o
  23. A Watcher of the DeadNadine Gordimer.
  24. RevelationFlannery O’Connor
  25. Nawabdin ElectricianDaniyal Mueenuddin

Suggested Readings

  1. Chekhov, Anton P, and Ralph E. Matlaw. Anton Chekhov’s Short Stories: Texts of the Stories, Backgrounds, Criticism. , 1979. Print.
  2. Ellmann, Richard. James Joyce. New York: Oxford University Press, 1959. Print.
  3. Ellmann, Richard. Oscar Wilde; a Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall, 1969. Print.
  4. Forster, E M, Mary Lago, Linda K. Hughes, and Elizabeth M. L. Walls. The Bbc Talks of E.m. Forster, 1929-1960: A Selected Edition. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2008. Print.
  5. Gillon, Adam. Joseph Conrad. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1982. Print.
  6. Hardy, Thomas, Michael Millgate, Florence E. Hardy, and Florence E. Hardy. The Life and Work of Thomas Hardy. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1985. Print.
  7. Long, E H. O. Henry, the Man and His Work. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1949. Print.
  8. Maupassant, Guy , Clara Bell, Florence Crew-Jones, and Fanny Rousseau-Wallach. The Works of Guy De Maupassant. New York: Printed privately for subscribers only, 1909. Print.
  9. Maupassant, Guy , George B. Ives, and Guy . Maupassant. Guy De Maupassant. , 1903. Print.
  10. Poe, Edgar A. The Cask of Amontillado. Charlottesville, Va: University of Virginia Library Electronic Text Center, 1993. Internet resource.
  11. Rubenstein, Roberta, and Charles R. Larson. Worlds of Fiction. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall, 2002. Print.
  12. Symons, Julian. The Life and Works of Edgar Allen Poe. , 2014. Print
  13. Tolstoy, Leo, and Robert Court. Leo Tolstoy Collected Short Stories. Mankato, MN: Peterson Pub, 2002. Print.
  14. Wilde, Alan. Art and Order: A Study of E.m. Forster. New York: New York University Press, 1964. Print.
  15. Wilson, Kathleen. Short Stories for Students: Presenting Analysis, Context, and Criticism on Commonly Studied Short Stories. Detroit: Gale, 1997. Print

Introduction to Morphology

Course Description

The key aim of the course is to introduce the students to the basic word structure in Pakistani languages. It engages them to have an understanding of words and parts of words. It will help them to understand word structure in Pakistani languages. 

Course Objectives

The objectives of this course are to enable the students to:

  • define and describe the terms like morphemes, morphology etc. 
  • understand basic concepts and principles in morphology
  • apply these principles in analyzing word structures in Pakistan languages
  • compare word formations in Pakistani languages.

Course Contents

  • Introduction to morphology (with examples from Pakistani languages)                      
    • free morphemes: roots and stems
    • bound morphemes: affixes: prefixes, suffixes, infixes, interfixes, circumfixes
    • morphological productivity: productivity of affixes, prefixes, suffixes, infixes
  • Basics of Phonetic Transcription of Words
  • Inflectional Morphology
    • Pluralization, Degree Marking, Verb Forms
  • Derivational Morphology
    • Formation of Nouns, Adjectives, Verbs and Adverbs
    • Minor processes of derivation: blending,  clipping, backformation, acronym, Reduplication
    • derivation by compounding: endocentric, exocentric and copulative compounds
    • derivation by modification of base
  • Morphology of Pakistani Languages
    • word forms in Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto and other Pakistani languages
    • Descriptive analysis of word forms in Pakistani languages
  • Morpho-Semantics- semantic change in word formation processes
  • Morphology Interface with Phonology and Syntax
  • Morphology-Syntax Interface

Recommended Readings

  1. Aronoff, M.  (1994). Morphology by itself.  MIT Press, Cambridge.
  2. Bauer, L. (2003). Introducing Linguistic Morphology–Edinburgh University Press
  3. Booij, G. (2005) The Grammar of Words–An Introduction to Linguistic Morphology
  4. David et al. (2009). Urdu Morphology. Oxford University Press, London
  5. Mangrio, R. A. (2016). The Morphology of Loanwords in Urdu: the Persian, Arabic and      English Strands, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle upon Tyne.
  6. McCarthy, A. C (2002). An Introduction to English Morphology-Words and their Structure,    Edinburgh University Press. Edinburgh
  7. Plag, I. (2002). Word Formation in English -Cambridge University Press. Cambridge
  8. Ayto, J. (1999). Twentieth Century Words, Oxford: OUP .
  9. Bauer, L. (2001). Morphological Productivity, Cambridge University Press
  10. Halpern, A. (1995). On the placement & morphology of clitics. CSLI

Publications, Stanford

  1. Yu, A. C (2006) A Natural History of Infixation. Oxford University Press, Chicago
  2. Zwicky, A. (1985b). ‘How to Describe Inflection.’ Proceedings of the BerkeleyLinguistics Society 11: 372-386.  Berkeley, California.
  3. Zwicky, A and Pullum, G. (1992). A misconceived approach to morphology. InProceedings of WCCFL 91, ed. D. Bates. CSLI, Palo Alto, 387-398.

Classical and Renaissance Drama

Course Description

The purpose of this course is to explore the nature, function, and themes of Classical Greek, Roman and Elizabethan drama in their theatrical, historical and social contexts. Through a detailed study of the texts by the selected dramatists such as Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, Seneca, Plautus, Shakespeare, Marlowe, and Webster the course traces the development of the key features of tragedy and comedy. Ancient opinions on drama, in particular, the views of Plato and Aristotle and their influence on classical drama will also be investigated. A comprehensive and critical background to mythology, drama and society is given in the beginning of the course to prepare students to undertake close reading and analyses of the selected texts.

The first section of the course will focus on representative classical plays which have influenced the development of drama as a genre. It will introduce students to the history of Classical Greek and Roman drama and motivate them to explore how selected texts can be interpreted in a modern context. A comprehensive and critical background to Greek drama and society is given in the beginning of the course to prepare students to undertake a close reading and analysis of the selected texts. Special emphasis will be given in the seminars to examine the role and significance of mythology in Greek drama, the importance of festivals in Greek society, the structure of Greek tragedy, and the difference between tragedy and comedy.

The second section focuses on the selective plays of William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, and John Webster. Through a critical scrutiny of the recommended plays, students will be made to appreciate the variety and imaginative exuberance of drama written in the age that popularized cultural profundity, humanist tendencies, philosophical excavations and artistic excellence. Qualities such as the poetic richness, absorbing plots, and vivid portrayal of characters will be highlighted to catch the true spirit of Renaissance. Through a selection of plays, this section highlights the characteristic features of various dramatic forms like tragedy, comedy, and history, and their variations.

Course Objectives

Students will be taught to demonstrate:

  • Knowledge of the myths, history, conventions, and major personages of classical theatre through readings of the plays and secondary sources.
  • An insight into the culture, society and political events of the classical periods under study.
  • An understanding of the main objectives, themes and ideas underlying Classical Drama.
  • Sound knowledge of the works of a range of classical dramatists and the ability to relate the primary texts to their socio-cultural and historical contexts.
  • The ability to carry out close reading and literary commentaries on the primary texts.
  • Critically assess the inherent nature of the human condition – its paradoxes, complexities, and conflicts.

Course Contents

  1. Aeschylus – Prometheus Bound
  2. Sophocles – Oedipus Rex
  3. Euripides – The Bacchae
  4. Aristophanes – The Birds
  5. Seneca – Hercules Furens (The Mad Hercules)
  6. Plautus – The Pot of Gold
  7. Shakespeare – King Lear; As You Like It
  8. Marlowe – Tamburlaine the Great (Parts I and II)
  9. Webster – The Duchess of Malfi

Recommended Readings

  1. Aeschylus. (1961).Prometheus Bound, The Suppliants, Seven Against Thebes, The Persians, translated by Philip Vellacott. Penguin Books.
  2. Aristophanes. (1962).The Complete Plays of Aristophanes. Edited by Moses Hadas. A Bantam Skylark Book.
  3. Bloom, Harold. (1987). John Webster’s The Duchess of Malfi. Chelsea House Pub (L).
  4. Bloom, Harold. (1999). Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human. London: Fourth Estate.
  5. Cheney, Patrick. (2004). The Cambridge Companion to Christopher Marlowe. Cambridge: CUP.
  6. Dover, K.J. (1972).Aristophanic Comedy. University of California Press.
  7. Eagleton, Terry. (1986). William Shakespeare. New York: Blackwell.
  8. Erikson, Peter. (1991). Rewriting Shakespeare, Rewriting Our-selves. Berkley: University of California Press.
  9. Frazer, James G. (1922).The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion. MacMillan.
  10. Gregory, Justina. (2005).A Companion to Greek Tragedy. Blackwell.
  11. Hackett, Helen. (2012). A Short History of English Renaissance Drama. I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd.
  12. Herington. (1986). Aeschylus. Yale.
  13. Kitto, H. D. F. (2005).Greek Tragedy. London and New York: Routledge.